The theory of demographic transition. (Economic)


The theory demographic transition is a theory that throws light on changes in birth rate and death rate  and consequently on the growth rate of population .
This theory explain the transition of population from one period to another along with the stages of economic developments of the developed countries.
This theory has been developed on the basis of economic  developments growth rate of population in the developed countries .
                 According to E.G dolam demographic  transition refers to a population cycle that beings with a fall of  death rate, continues population .it concludes with a fall in the death rate.
                   C.P blacker divided population in to five types as high stationary .demographic transition population growth will have to pass these different stages during the course of economic development .the four stages of demographic transition are given as below .
STAGE-1: In STAGE-1 birth rate was high and death rate also High .this STAGE  has been called as the stage of zero population growth . people mostly live in the rural areas. Agriculture was the main occupation  of the people . agriculture was backward ,level of income was low . this factor positively affects the increase in the birth rate was low due to lack of adequate medical facilities ,doctors and medicines.
STAGE-2: In STAGE-2 death rate started declining but birth rate remained constant at high level. There was the change in occupation of the people . agriculture productivities  and industrial productivities are increase .The level of income and standard of living also increase . medical science was well developed . thus in this stage birth rate remained constant at high level  but death rate declines . there was the problems of population exploitation .
  • STAGE-3 The STAGE-3 death rate continued to decline and birth rate also decline. The industrial and tertiary sector were well developed . the level of income was very    high . medical facilities are well developed . the growth rate of population declines.
  • Stage:4- The fourth stage is called as the stationary population . the birth and death rate are both at low level . they are again near balance .there is little growth is population in this stage.
In the above diagram in stage 1 both the curve birth rate B.B & curve of the death rate D.D . They are parallel to each other . It shows on growth of population stage . in stage 2 the B.B curve remains horizontal straight line but the B.B curve slopes down ward. In stage 3 both these two curves slope down ward but the D.D curve remains horizontal straight line . In stage 4 both two curve again move parallel to each other and remains horizontal straight line.

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